- •Smoking ≥20 pack-years increased gallbladder cancer (GBC) risk.
- •A threshold dose–response was associated with smoking pack-years and GBC risk.
- •Smoking ≥20 pack-years and hyperglycaemia had a synergistic effect on GBC risk.
- •Smoking may be a modifiable risk factor for GBC.
- •More individualised cancer prevention education is required to reduce GBC risks.
Background and aims
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