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Efficacy comparison between anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy and anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4 combination therapy as first-line immunotherapy for advanced acral melanoma: A retrospective, multicenter study of 254 Japanese patients

Published:October 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2022.08.030

      Highlights

      • PD-1+CTLA-4 is clinically more efficacious than PD-1 for treating advanced NAM.
      • PD-1+CTLA-4 is not superior to PD-1 monotherapy for treating advanced PSM.
      • Advanced NAM patients may be strong candidates for first-line PD-1+CTLA-4.

      Abstract

      Background

      Although anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy (PD-1) is commonly used to treat advanced acral melanoma (AM), its efficacy is limited. Further, data on the efficacy of PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4 antibody (PD-1+CTLA-4) for the treatment of AM are limited. Therefore, we compared the efficacy of PD-1+CTLA-4 and PD-1 in the treatment of Japanese patients with advanced AM.

      Methods

      This retrospective study evaluated patients with advanced AM who were treated with PD-1 or PD-1+CTLA-4 as first-line immunotherapy in 24 Japanese institutions between 2014 and 2020. Treatment efficacy focussing on the objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) was compared between the two groups.

      Results

      In total, 254 patients (palm and sole melanoma [PSM], n = 180; nail apparatus melanoma [NAM], n = 74) were included. Among the patients with PSM, the ORR (19% vs. 31%; P = 0.44), PFS (5.9 vs. 3.2 months; P = 0.74), and OS (23.1 vs. not reached; P = 0.55) did not differ significantly between the PD-1 and PD-1+CTLA-4 groups. Among the patients with NAM, the ORR (61% vs. 10%; P < 0.001) was significantly higher and PFS was longer (6.4 vs. 3.8 months; P = 0.10) in the PD-1+CTLA-4 group than in the PD-1 group. Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that PD-1+CTLA-4 is an independent predictor of a favourable PFS in patients with NAM (P = 0.002).

      Conclusions

      The efficacy of PD-1+CTLA-4 is not superior to that of PD-1 for the treatment of advanced PSM. However, PD-1+CTLA-4 may be more efficacious than PD-1 for the treatment of advanced NAM.

      Keywords

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