Orthotopic HCC mouse models to predict response to immunotherapy

      Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and cancer immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoint PD-1 will soon become the standard of care (SoC) in the treatment of HCC [1]. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit equally from this therapy. In order to better understand the difference between responders and non-responders, we established two orthotopic HCC mouse models with distinct morphological, angiogenic, genetic and immunological characteristics and investigated the therapeutic response to frequently used immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) in comparison to the current SoC sorafenib.
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