Breast cancer immunotherapy using magnetised oncolytic viruses

      Background: Oncolytic viruses (OV) are encouraging new immunotherapies for cancer. OVs induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) and activate antitumour immunity. However, clinical use has been limited to intratumoural delivery as a result of inadequate tumour targeting following systemic injection, strong anti-viral host immune responses and sequestration by the liver and spleen.
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