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The induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is critical to eradicate tumour cells. In mouse skin, a subset of dendritic cell characterised by the expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 is highly potent to activate CD8+ T cells. By combining PLEASE-assisted laser poration of the skin allowing dermal delivery and the use of dimeric vaccine molecule in which the XCR1 ligand, Xcl1, was fused to the antigen, we targeted specifically this XCR1+ dermal subset.
Dermal delivery of this vaccine molecule after skin laser-poration induced specific strong T cell proliferation in an XCR1-dependent manner. A single immunization allowed protecting against melanoma in both therapeutic and prophylactic protocols.
Thus, specific targeting of cross-presenting skin DCs represents a promising vaccine strategy for induction of CD8+ T cell responses and protection against cancers.
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