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Lessons learned from independent central review

Published:December 22, 2008DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.10.031

      Abstract

      Independent central review (ICR) is advocated by regulatory authorities as a means of independent verification of clinical trial end-points dependent on medical imaging, when the data from the trials may be submitted for licensing applications [Food and Drug Administration. United States food and drug administration guidance for industry: clinical trial endpoints for the approval of cancer drugs and biologics. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guideline on the evaluation of anticancer medicinal products in man. London, UK: European Medicines Agency; 2006; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 21-492 (oxaliplatin). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2002; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 21-923 (sorafenib tosylate). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 22-065 (ixabepilone). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 22-059 (lapatinib ditosylate). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Approval package for BLA numbers 97-0260 and BLA Number 97-0244 (rituximab). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1997; United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA clinical review of BLA 98-0369 (Herceptin® trastuzumab (rhuMAb HER2)). FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; 1998; United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA Briefing Document Oncology Drugs Advisory Committee meeting NDA 21801 (satraplatin). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; Thomas ES, Gomez HL, Li RK, et al. Ixabepilone plus capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer progressing after anthracycline and taxane treatment. JCO 2007(November):5210–7]. In addition, clinical trial sponsors have used ICR in Phase I–II studies to assist in critical pathway decisions including in-licensing of compounds [Cannistra SA, Matulonis UA, Penson RT, et al. Phase II study of bevacizumab in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer or peritoneal serous cancer. JCO 2007(November):5180–6; Perez EA, Lerzo G, Pivot X, et al. Efficacy and safety of ixabepilone (BMS-247550) in a phase II study of patients with advanced breast cancer resistant to an anthracycline, a taxane, and capecitabine. JCO 2007(August):3407–14; Vermorken JB, Trigo J, Hitt R, et al. Open-label, uncontrolled, multicenter phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab as a single agent in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who failed to respond to platinum-based therapy. JCO 2007(June):2171–7; Ghassan KA, Schwartz L, Ricci S, et al. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. JCO 2006(September):4293–300; Boué F, Gabarre J, GaBarre J, et al. Phase II trial of CHOP plus rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. JCO 2006(September):4123–8; Chen HX, Mooney M, Boron M, et al. Phase II multicenter trial of bevacizumab plus fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with advanced refractory colorectal cancer: an NCI Treatment Referral Center Trial TRC-0301. JCO 2006(July):3354–60; Ratain MJ, Eisen T, Stadler WM, et al. Phase II placebo-controlled randomized discontinuation trial of sorafenib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. JCO 2006(June):2502–12; Jaffer AA, Lee FC, Singh DA, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of S-1 plus cisplatin in patients with untreated advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. JCO 2006(February):663–7; Bouché O, Raoul JL, Bonnetain F, et al. Randomized multicenter phase II trial of a biweekly regimen of fluorouracil and leucovorin (LV5FU2), LV5FU2 plus cisplatin, or LV5FU2 plus irinotecan in patients with previously untreated metastatic gastric cancer: a Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive Group Study—FFCD 9803. JCO 2004(November):4319–28]. This article will focus on the definition and purpose of ICR and the issues and lessons learned in the ICR setting primarily in Phase II and III oncology studies. This will include a discussion on discordance between local and central interpretations, consequences of ICR, reader discordance during the ICR, operational considerations and the need for specific imaging requirements as part of the study protocol.

      Keywords

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