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Cancer survival in European adolescents and young adults

      Abstract

      Survival of patients aged 15–24 years, diagnosed with cancer during the period of 1990–1994, is described within Europe. Data on 15 101 patients, extracted from the files of the 56 adult cancer registries included in the EUROCARE-3 database, representing 20 European countries, were analysed and compared. Five-year survival for ‘all cancers combined’ was 75% in males (ranging from 59% in Estonia to 89% in Iceland), and 78% in females (ranging from 59% in Estonia to 89% in Norway). The Northern European countries (except Denmark) and Austria had the highest survival figures, while survival in the Eastern European countries was lower than the European average. Denmark, UK, and the pool of the central European countries, had intermediate survival figures. Haemopoietic tumours were the most common malignancies: 5-year survival was high for Hodgkin's disease (89%), intermediate for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (68%) and lower for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (47%) and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) (39%). Five-year survival for gonadal germ cell cancers, the second most common malignancy in young adults, was 90%. Five-year survival for the other cancers under consideration was as follows: 89% for skin melanoma, 66% for all Central Nervous System (CNS) tumours, 57% for bone tumours, 58% for osteosarcoma, 42% for Ewing's sarcoma, 57% for soft-tissue sarcomas, 99% for thyroid carcinoma, 82% for uterine cervical carcinoma, and 83% for ovarian carcinoma. For more ‘adult-specific tumours’, 5-year survival was good for colon (77%) and lung (60%) cancers, and less favourable, compared with adults, for breast cancer (68%). Adolescents (15–19 years) had significantly worse survival than young adults (20–24 years) for all malignancies combined. Survival for Hodgkin's lymphoma, CNS tumours, melanoma and colon cancer showed marked regional variability. Since many of the tumours occurring in young adults are curable, these results should encourage, without delay, efforts to identify obstacles to improving outcome and reducing geographical inequalities in survival for this group of patients.

      Keywords

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