Detection of HMGI-C in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients


      The human high mobility group (HMG) protein (HMGI-C) belongs to the HMG family of architectural transcription factors which are expressed only during embryonic development, and not in normal adult tissues. Considerable interest has recently been shown in HMGI-C and its expression in a variety of neoplastic tissues, whereas no expression could be found in normal tissue adjacent to the tumour. So far, no data is available on the expression of HMGI-C in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumours. In this study we analysed the expression of HMGI-C in peripheral blood samples of 61 patients with breast cancer and 35 healthy donors using a haemi-nested reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. No HMGI-C could be detected in any of the healthy donors' samples. In the three prognostic groups according to the Nottingham Prognostic Score, the proportion of patients expressing HMGI-C differed significantly (P=0.001). The worse the prognosis was, the more patients expressed HMGI-C. This is the first report on the expression of HMGI-C in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer and our data suggest that this expression is correlated with a poor prognosis.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to European Journal of Cancer
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Bustin M.
        • Reeves R.
        High-mobility-group chromosomal proteins.
        Prog. Nucl. Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 1996; 54: 35-100
        • Tallini G.
        • Dal Cin P.
        HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C dysregulation.
        Adv. Anat. Pathol. 1999; 6: 237-246
        • Chau K.
        • Arlotta P.
        • Patel U.A.
        • Crane-Robinson C.
        • Manfioletti G.
        • Ono S.J.
        A novel downstream positive regulatory element mediating transcription of the human high mobility group protein (HMGI-C) gene.
        FEBS Lett. 1999; 457: 429-436
        • Goodwin G.
        Molecules in focus — the high mobility group protein HMGI-C.
        Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 1998; 30: 761-766
        • Mantovani F.
        • Covaceuszach S.
        • Rustighi A.
        • et al.
        NF-kappaB-mediated activation is enhanced by the architectural factor HMGI-C.
        Nucl. Acids Res. 1998; 26: 1433-1439
        • Rogalla P.
        • Drechsler K.
        • Frey G.
        • et al.
        HMGI-C expression patterns in human tissues — implications for the genesis of frequent mesenchymal tumors.
        Am. J. Pathol. 1996; 149: 775-779
        • Zhou X.
        • Benson K.F.
        • Ashar H.R.
        • Chada K.
        Mutation responsible for the mouse pygmy phenotype in the developmentally regulated factor HMGI-C.
        Nature. 1995; 376: 771-774
        • Kazmierczak B.
        • Bullerdiek J.
        • Pham K.H.
        • Bartnitzke S.
        • Wiesner H.
        Intron 3 of HMGI-C is the most frequent target of chromosomal aberrations in human tumors and has been conserved basically for at least 30 million years.
        Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 1998; 103: 175-177
        • Berlingieri M.T.
        • Manfioletti G.
        • Santoro M.
        • et al.
        Inhibition of HMGI-C protein synthesis suppresses retrovirally induced neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells.
        Mol. Cell. Biol. 1995; 15: 1545-1553
        • Rogalla P.
        • Drechsler K.
        • Kazmierczak B.
        • Rippe V.
        • Bonk U.
        • Bullerdiek J.
        Expression of HMGI-C, a member of the high mobility group family, in a subset of breast cancers.
        Mol. Carcinogenesis. 1997; 19: 153-156
        • Rogalla P.
        • Drechsler K.
        • Schröder-Babo W.
        • Eberhardt K.
        • Bullerdiek J.
        HMGI-C expression patterns in non-small lung cancer and surrounding tissue.
        Anticancer Res. 1998; 18: 3327-3330
        • Rommel B.
        • Rogalla P.
        • Jox A.
        • et al.
        HMGI-C, a member of the high mobility group family of proteins, is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and in leukemic cells.
        Leukemia Lymphoma. 1997; 26: 603-607
        • Chiappetta G.
        • Bandiera A.
        • Berlingieri M.T.
        • et al.
        The expression of the high mobility group HMGI(Y) proteins correlates with the malignant phenotype of human thyroid neoplasias.
        Oncogene. 1995; 10: 1307-1314
        • Staats B.
        • Bonk U.
        • Wanschura S.
        • et al.
        A fibroadenoma with a t(4;12) (q27;q15) affecting the HMGI-C gene, a member of the high mobility group protein gene family.
        Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 1996; 38: 299-303
        • Kazmierczak B.
        • Rosigkeit J.
        • Wanschura S.
        • et al.
        HMGI-C rearrangements as the molecular basis for the majority of pulmonary chondroid hamartomas.
        Oncogene. 1996; 12: 515-521
        • Klotzbucher M.
        • Wasserfall A.
        • Fuhrmann U.
        Misexpression of wild-type and truncated isoforms of the high mobility group I proteins HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) in uterine leiomyomas.
        Am. J. Pathol. 1999; 155: 1535-1542
        • Patel U.A.
        • Bandiera A.
        • Manfioletti G.
        • Giancotti V.
        • Chau K.Y.
        • Crane-Robinson C.
        Expression and cDNA cloning of human HMGI-C phosphoprotein.
        Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994; 201: 63-70
        • Robertson J.F.R.
        • Dixon A.R.
        • Nicholson R.I.
        • Elston C.W.
        • Blamey R.W.
        Confirmation of a prognostic index for patients with metastatic breast cancer treated by endocrine therapy.
        Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 1992; 22: 221-227
        • Abe N.
        • Watanabe T.
        • Sugiyama M.
        • et al.
        Determination of high mobility group I (Y) expression levels in colorectal neoplasias.
        Cancer Res. 1999; 59: 1169-1174
        • Tamimi Y.
        • van der Poel H.G.
        • Karthaus H.F.M.
        • Debruyne F.M.
        • Schalken J.A.
        A retrospective study of high mobility group protein I(Y) as progression marker for prostate cancer determined by in situ hybridization.
        Br. J. Cancer. 1996; 74: 573-578